A resource is extra data used by the game, and is stored in a data file, instead of being in the code.
Minecraft has two primary resource systems active: one on the client used for visuals such as models, textures, and localization called
assets, the other used for gameplay such as recipes and loot tables called
Resource packs control the former, while data packs control the latter.
In the default mod development kit, assets and data directories are located under the
src/main/resources directory of the project.
When multiple resource packs or data packs are enabled, they are merged. Generally, files from packs at the top of the stack override those below; however, for certain files, such as localization files and tags, data is actually merged contentwise. Mods actually define resource and data packs too, in their
resources directories, but they are seen as subsets of the “Default” pack. Mod resource packs cannot be disabled, but they can be overriden by other resource packs. Mod datapacks can be disabled with the vanilla
All resources should have snake case paths and filenames (lowercase, using “_” for word boundaries), which is enforced in 1.11 and above.
Minecraft identifies resources using
ResourceLocation contains two parts: a namespace and a path. It generally points to the resource at
ctx is a context-specific path fragment that depends on how the
ResourceLocation is being used. When a
ResourceLocation is written/read as/from a string, it is seen as
<namespace>:<path>. If the namespace and the colon are left out, then when the string is read into an
ResourceLocation the namespace will almost always default to
"minecraft". A mod should put its resources into a namespace with the same name as its modid (E.g. a mod with id
examplemod should place its resources in
ResourceLocations pointing to those files would look like
examplemod:<path>.). This is not a requirement, and in some cases it can be desirable to use a different (or even more than one) namespace.
ResourceLocations are used outside the resource system, too, as they happen to be a great way to uniquely identify objects (e.g. registries).