A resource is extra data used by the game, and is stored in a data file, instead of being in the code. Resources are contained in the assets directory on the classpath. In the default mod development kit, this directory is under the src/main/resources directory of the project. It includes things such as models, textures, and localization files.

When multiple resource packs are enabled, they are merged. Generally, files from resource packs at the top of the stack override those below; however, for certain files, such as localization files, data is actually merged contentwise. Mods actually define resource packs too, in their resources directories, but they are seen as subsets of the “Default” resource pack. Mod resource packs cannot be disabled, but they can be overriden by other resource packs.

All resources should have snake case paths and filenames (lowercase, using “_” for word boundaries), which is enforced in 1.11 and above.


Minecraft identifies resources using ResourceLocations. A ResourceLocation contains two parts: a domain and a path. It generally points to the resource at assets/<domain>/<ctx>/<path>, where ctx is a context-specific path fragment that depends on how the ResourceLocation is being used. When a ResourceLocation is written/read as/from a string, it is seen as <domain>:<path>. If the domain and the colon are left out, then when the string is read into an ResourceLocation the domain will almost always default to "minecraft". A mod should put its resources into a domain with the same name as its modid (E.g. a mod with id examplemod should place its resources in assets/examplemod, and ResourceLocations pointing to those files would look like examplemod:<path>.). This is not a requirement, and in some cases it can be desirable to use a different (or even more than one) domain. ResourceLocations are used outside the resource system, too, as they happen to be a great way to uniquely identify objects (e.g. registries).